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> [GUIDA] Slackware & Toshiba Satellite L300 series, [LINUX]Guida sul settaggio completo
metrofox
  Inviato il: Jun 7 2009, 08:06 PM
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In questa guida verrà spiegato bene come configurare una slackware(che sia -current o meno) su un Toshiba Satellite L300, la guida è ottimizza su una slackware-current con kernel 2.6.29.4, questo però non significa che su versioni meno recenti di slackware la guida non funzioni, anzi...Mi premetto che tutto questo mi è stato insegnato da ponciarello e ne ho fatto oro, inoltre vorrei che tutte queste informazioni siano visibili ed archiviate per la "facile" lettura al pubblico, così che il primo approccio con slackware non sia traumatico(e non lo è). Prima di cominciare io non mi assumo alcuna responsabilità in caso il vostro PC subisca danni(cosa che non dovrebbe accadere al 99,9% in quanto non viene toccato nulla all'hardware).

LEGGETE LA GUIDA TUTTA E POI OPERATE.

Queste dovrebbero essere le statistiche del vostro PC:

CODE
root@darkstar:/home/metrofox# lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Mobile 4 Series Chipset Memory Controller Hub (rev 07)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Mobile 4 Series Chipset Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 07)
00:02.1 Display controller: Intel Corporation Mobile 4 Series Chipset Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 07)
00:1a.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4 (rev 03)
00:1a.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5 (rev 03)
00:1a.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #2 (rev 03)
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) HD Audio Controller (rev 03)
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) PCI Express Port 1 (rev 03)
00:1c.1 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) PCI Express Port 2 (rev 03)
00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) PCI Express Port 5 (rev 03)
00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 03)
00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 03)
00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 03)
00:1d.3 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #6 (rev 03)
00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #1 (rev 03)
00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 Mobile PCI Bridge (rev 93)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation ICH9M LPC Interface Controller (rev 03)
00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel Corporation ICH9M/M-E SATA AHCI Controller (rev 03)
00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) SMBus Controller (rev 03)
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8101E/RTL8102E PCI Express Fast Ethernet controller (rev 02)
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Atheros Communications Inc. AR242x 802.11abg Wireless PCI Express Adapter (rev 01)


In caso ci siano piccoli cambiamenti hardware vi consiglio di cercare con google prima(ovviamente che non siano cambiamenti sui controller USB giggle.gif ).

.::Leggenda::.

# ---> Significa che dovete essere superutenti in quel momento( per diventare superutente digitare su e poi la vostra password)
$ ---> Significa che il tutto può anche essere fatto(ed è consigliabile)con l'utente normale.

.::Requisiti minimi::.
  • Un Toshiba di questa serie con almeno VGA ed Ethernet controller dello stesso genere
  • Una slackware-12.2 vergine.
Per prima cosa io vi consiglio di collegarvi ad internet, adesso spiegherò come collegarsi ad internet tramite CAVO ETHERNET:

CODE
# netconfig


Rispondete alle semplici domande che vi vengono poste, se non masticate l'inglese allora pigliatevi un dizionario. smile.gif Una volta fatta la vostra configurazione date il seguente comando per sicurezza:

CODE
# /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 restart


Se non ricevete errori allora provate a collegarvi a pingare prima il vostro IP locale e poi un sito web:

CODE
$ ping 192.168.1.1


Dovreste ricevere il seguente output per essere sicuri di essere collegati al vostro modem/router:

CODE
PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=2.04 ms
[...]


Se tutto funziona a dovere pingate google ad esempio:

CODE
$ ping www.google.it


Dovreste anche ora ricevere:

CODE
PING www.l.google.com (209.85.137.147) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from mg-in-f147.google.com (209.85.137.147): icmp_seq=1 ttl=53 time=55.1 ms
64 bytes from mg-in-f147.google.com (209.85.137.147): icmp_seq=2 ttl=53 time=54.2 ms


In caso riceveste un output con un " Host unreachable " nel primo ping andiamo a vedere per bene i files di configurazione:

CODE
# pico /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf


Assicuratevi che i parametri siano esatti e veri, in caso non fossero modificateli:

CODE
# Config information for eth0:
IPADDR[0]="IP LOCALE VOSTRO"
NETMASK[0]="255.255.255.0"
USE_DHCP[0]="DECIDETE VOI SE USARLO O MENO"
DHCP_HOSTNAME[0]="eth0"
[...]
# Default gateway IP address:
GATEWAY="IL VOSTRO GATEWAY"


Se proprio non sapete i parametri quali sono e sul PC server c'è windows potete benissimo aprire il prompt dei comandi e digitare ipconfig per tutte le informazioni, questo vi aiuterà, in caso avete un altro PC con linux, usate ifconfig o vedete nei files di configurazione di quel sistema stesso. smile.gif Anche se le distro cambiano i files di configurazione sono gli stessi e si trovano tutti in /etc. Una volta settato il tutto per bene:

CODE
# /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 restart


Non dovreste ricevere errori, in caso riceveste ANCORA errori io posso consigliarvi di assicurarvi che i moduli della scheda ethernet siano caricati dal kernel:

CODE
$ lsmod | grep r8


Dovrebbe uscirvi come output:

CODE
lsmod | grep r8169
r8169                  32256  0
mii                     4380  1 r8169


in caso ci siano altri "r8" rimuoveteli con:

CODE
# rmmod nomemodulodarimuovere


In caso abbiate un modulo più aggiornato lasciatelo e riguardate i settaggi perché la scheda di rete dovrebbe essere riconosciuta, in caso no usate il modulo standard del kernel. smile.gif Ogni modifica che fate accompagnate il comando:

CODE
# /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 restart


TUTTO DOVREBBE FUNZIONARE PER ANDARE AVANTI, IN CASO NON SI CI BLOCCA IN UN ERRORE E NON SI VA AVANTI GOOGLARE E/O POSTARE.

Ora, invece, se non riuscite proprio a collegarvi con l'ethernet provate col wireless lol.gif Se non riuscite con questo, amici posso consigliarvi o di andare a letto per un po e riprovare dopo, o pregare ponciarello. pray[1].gif A volte però ragazzi l'errore è banale, io ad esempio volevo collegarmi su internet con l'ethernet senza aver il cavetto attaccato, poi collegandomi ad internet col wireless sbagliando la password per l'accesso(WPA-PSK), è una cosa molto fica che vi fa venire il sorrisino, e quando vi viene ci sono 2 tipiche reazioni, risata senza senso e malattia celebrale o bestemmia spontanea. Ritorniamo al lavoro e posiamo le canne nel posacenere. Allora assicuratevi che il vostro kernel carichi i moduli della vostra Atheros(qui è importante che abbiate il modello messo all'inizio del post):

CODE
$ root@darkstar:/home/metrofox# lsmod | grep ath
ath5k                 109216  0
mac80211              155556  1 ath5k
led_class               3392  1 ath5k
cfg80211               36436  2 ath5k,mac80211


Questi dovrebbero essere i moduli esatti. Che abbiate questi senò siamo a mare...

Cominciamo con la configurazione:

CODE
# iwconfig


Se tutto va bene vi ritroverete in rete facilmente, in caso andiamo a divertirci coi nostri simpatici files di configurazione a mano :P :

CODE
$ pico /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf


CODE
## Example config information for wlan0.  Uncomment the lines you need and fill
## in your info.  (You may not need all of these for your wireless network)
IFNAME[4]="wlan0"
IPADDR[4]="VOSTRO IP LOCALE"
NETMASK[4]="255.255.255.0"
USE_DHCP[4]="SCEGLIETE VOI"
#DHCP_HOSTNAME[4]="wlan0" <--
DHCP_KEEPRESOLV[4]="yes" <-- SCEGLIETE VOI SI O NO
DHCP_KEEPNTP[4]="yes" <-- SCEGLIETE VOI SI O NO
DHCP_KEEPGW[4]="yes" <-- SCEGLIETE VOI SI O NO
#DHCP_IPADDR[4]=""
WLAN_ESSID[4]="NOME DELLA VOSTRA RETE"
WLAN_MODE[4]=Managed
#WLAN_RATE[4]="54M auto"
WLAN_CHANNEL[4]="Auto"
#WLAN_KEY[4]="LASCIATE DEFAULT QUI"
#WLAN_IWPRIV[4]="set AuthMode=WPAPSK | set EncrypType=TKIP | set
WPAPSK="VOSTRA PASSWORD IN PSK"
WLAN_WPA[4]="wpa_supplicant"
#WLAN_WPADRIVER[4]="ndiswrapper"


Non copiate-incollate queste stringhe nel vostri file di configurazione, settatelo ben bene e soprattutto nel files originale ci sono stringhe con 2 " ## ", in questo caso guardate quale delle mie stringhe ha solo un " # ", questo è importante.

Ora tocca al file /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, sempre da root e con pico editate il seguente file, modifichiamo solo la parte che ci interessa:

CODE
# WPA protected network, supply your own ESSID and WPAPSK here:
network={
 scan_ssid=0
 ssid="NOME VOSTRA RETE"
 proto=WPA <--Se il tutto è WPA ovviamente
 key_mgmt=WPA-PSK <-- Se il tutto è WPA ovviamente
 pairwise=CCMP TKIP <-- Se tutto è WPA ovviamente
 group=CCMP TKIP WEP104 WEP40
 psk=VOSTRA PASSWORD PSK
 priority=10
}


Non copia-incollate manco questo, settatelo ben bene.

Ora dirigiamoci nel file /etc/rc.d/rc.wireless.conf. Andiamo nella sezione che ci interessa o meglio:

CODE
# Multiband Atheros based 802.11a/b/g universal NIC cards
00:05:4E:*)
   INFO="Multiband Atheros based 802.11a/b/g universal NIC"
   # ESSID (extended network name) : My Network, any
   #ESSID="NOMEVOSTRARETE"
   # Operation mode : Ad-Hoc, Managed, Master, Repeater, Secondary, auto
   MODE="Managed"
   # Frequency or channel : 1, 2, 3 (channel); 2.422G, 2.46G (frequency)
   FREQ=""
   CHANNEL="1"
   # Bit rate : auto, 1M, 11M,54M
   RATE="auto"
   #Encryption key: 4567-89AB-CD, s:password
   # Example for 40-bit encryption:
   #KEY="883e-aa67-21 [1] key 5501-d0da-87 [2] key 91f5-3368-6b [3] key 2d73-31b7-96 [4]"
   # Example for 104-bit encryption (aka 128-bit WEP):
   #KEY="d5ad2f05abd048ecf10b1c80c7"
   KEY="NOMECHIAVE WEP"(se avete una WEP)
   # Other iwconfig parameters : power off, ap 01:23:45:67:89:AB
   IWCONFIG=""
   # iwspy parameters : + 01:23:45:67:89:AB
   IWSPY=""
   # iwpriv parameters : set_port 2, set_histo 50 60
   IWPRIV=""
 ;;


Qui c'è poco e nulla da modificare, se avete una WEP ovviamente dovete modifcare tutti i documenti modificati precedentemente per una WEP, se avete un WPA non editate.

CODE
# /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 restart


Non dovrebbe dare particolari errori, in caso dia il seguente:

CODE
Error for wireless request "Set Nickname" (8B1C) :
   SET failed on device wlan0; Operation not supported.


Fottetevene.

CONSIGLIO: Leggete praticamente tutto ciò che c'è scritto all'inizio, i commenti in questi files di configurazione sono molto importati, insegnano molto e sono molto chiari.

Ora utilizziamo i drivers intel e facciamo alcune modifiche alla tastiera e al mouse(se lo usate):

CODE
# pico /etc/X11/xorg.conf


Nella sezione module assicuriamoci che ci sia il modulo glx caricato, in caso non lo fosse aggiungiamolo:

CODE
# This loads the GLX module
   Load       "glx"


Nella sezione "Input Devices" modificate il layout della tastiera levando il carattere " # " ed aggiungendo "it" per utilizzare il layout italiano:

CODE
   Option     "XkbLayout"     "it"


Ora il mouse, il mouse quando lo si collega col cavo USB alla porta USB dovrebbe essere già funzionante, ma non vi funzionerà ad esempio la rotellina, per risolvere questo problema modifichiamo questa stringa:

CODE
   Option "Emulate3Buttons" "yes"


Una volta fatto il tutto non ci resta altro che andare nella sezione della scheda video e configurare la nostra bella scheda video intel con i suoi drivers proprietari:

CODE
# **********************************************************************
# Graphics device section
# **********************************************************************

# Any number of graphics device sections may be present

Section "Device"
   Identifier  "VESA Framebuffer"
   Driver      "intel"
   #VideoRam    4096
   # Insert Clocks lines here if appropriate
EndSection


Questa sezione dovrebbe essere configurata così, non fate caso alla stringa Identifier, non serve. Adesso bisogna aggiungereuna sezione che è molto comoda per la nostra scheda video, creiamo la sezione DRI alla fine del documento:

CODE
Section "DRI"
  Mode 0666
EndSection


Come ultima cosa:

CODE
# pico /etc/rc.d/rc.modules


Leviamo la " # " nella stringa:

CODE
/sbin/modprobe toshiba_acpi


Ora riavviamo di nuovo la macchina e i nuovi drivers dovrebbe essere caricati all'avvio dal kernel. Questo indica che abbiamo finito la configurazione. smile.gif Io però vi consiglierei di upgradare a -current, però se tutto vi funziona col kernel di slackware 12.2 restateci.

IN CASO QUALCOSA NON VI FUNZIONI COME I DRIVERS RIGUARDATE xorg.conf OPPURE UPGRADATE AL RAMO -current.

Messaggio modificato da mercury il Dec 10 2009, 11:58 PM

"You'll PAY to know what you REALLY think."-J.R. "Bob" Dobbs, 1961
"Any better: congratulations! You've just discovered the secret message. Please, send your answer to "Old Pink", care of the "Funny Farm", Chalfont."
«Won’t you live? Believe me, for now suit yourself»
«Your mother sells welts in hell»
«Che lo "Slack" sia con voi!»
«kill usr1 -1»
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metrofox
Inviato il: Jun 8 2009, 09:05 AM
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PASSARE AL RAMO CURRENT:

Una volta che abbiamo fatto praticamente tutto possiamo scegliere un mirror per upgradare definitivamente a -current. Aprite un terminale e date il comando:

CODE
# pico /etc/slackpkg/mirrors


Scegliete ora un mirror current(purtroppo ci troviamo nella parte finale del file), per selezionare il mirror basta dirigersi nei mirrors di current e togliere il carattere " # ".

APPROFONDIMENTO: Nello scripting in bash i caratteri " # " vengono identificati come commenti e nel codice le stringhe precedute dal carattere non vengono considerate e non verranno eseguite, praticamente non hanno importanza se non per il lettore stesso.

Una volta finito sempre da root lanciate i primi comandi per aggiornare:

CODE
# slackpkg update
# slackpkg install-new
# slackpkg upgrade-all


Ogni volta che si passa a current ci saranno ovviamente aggiornamenti sostanziosi che riguardano ogni componente di slackware, quindi spesso e volentieri vi ritrovate aggiornamenti del kernel, vi potete ritrovare aggiornamenti di X, dell'ambiente desktop e tanto altro(date un'occhiata qui: http://slackware.osuosl.org/slackware-current/ChangeLog.txt ). Io sinceramente vi consiglierei a restare sempre su una current(che poi non è mai tanto current, slackware è sempre stabilissima). Una volta fatti tutti sti aggiornamenti ovviamente ci sarà anche quello del kernel e per bootare col nuovo kernel ci sarà bisogno di:

-modificare il lilo.conf(ovviamente se nell'installazione avete installato lilo).

Controllate i files installati nella cartella /boot:

CODE
$ ls /boot


CODE
metrofox@darkstar:~$ ls /boot
README.initrd@                       config-huge-2.6.29.4
README.initrd.save                   config-huge-smp-2.6.29.4-smp
System.map@                          diag1.img
System.map-generic-2.6.29.4          initrd-tree/
System.map-generic-smp-2.6.29.4-smp  initrd.gz
System.map-huge-2.6.29.4             map
System.map-huge-smp-2.6.29.4-smp     slack.bmp
boot.0800                            vmlinuz@
boot_message.txt                     vmlinuz-generic-2.6.29.4
config@                              vmlinuz-generic-smp-2.6.29.4-smp
config-generic-2.6.29.4              vmlinuz-huge-2.6.29.4
config-generic-smp-2.6.29.4-smp      vmlinuz-huge-smp-2.6.29.4-smp


Come vedete i kernel cominciano tutti con vmlinuz-*-smp-numeroversione-smp. Scegliete il vostro(copiate-incollate il nome). Io vi consiglio sempre di usare il generic, ma per usare quello dovrete leggere prima il file /boot/README.initrd e crearvi il file initrd.gz, ma questo è un altro e discorso e magari ne riparleremo dopo, per ora utilizzate l'huge, appena sarà tutto finito utilizzerremo il generic.

CODE
# pico /etc/lilo.conf


Questa è la sezione che ci interessa modificare:

CODE
# Linux bootable partition config begins
 image = /boot/vmlinuz-huge-smp-numeroversione-smp <--- Modificare il kernel qui


Una volta finito:

CODE
# lilo -v


E riavviamo la macchina. Per assicurarci di essere all'interno del nuovo kernel digitate:

CODE
uname -a
e dovrebbe spuntare la versione del kernel in uso. Ora io userei il kernel generic e lasciare il kernel huge, il kernel generic diciamo che è più snello, per utilizzare il kernel generic però dobbiamo creare il file initrd.gz, date i seguenti comandi:

CODE
$ cd /boot
#   mkinitrd -c -k versionekernel-smp -m mbcache:jbd:ext3 -f ext3 -r /dev/VOSTRA ROOT


Ovviamente gli ext3 scritti nel comando servono agli utenti con " / " in ext3, in caso aveste insallato slackware con un ext4(come me) cambiate il 3 al posto del 4 biggrin.gif Semplice no? Una volta finito:

CODE
# pico /etc/lilo.conf


Infine editiamo la parte

CODE
 image = /boot/vmlinuz-generic-smp-2.6.29.4-smp <--- Sostituite huge a generic
 initrd = /boot/initrd.gz <-- QUESTA DOVETE AGGIUNGERLA VOI


CODE
# lilo -v


Riavviate e vedete se parte, in caso vada in kernel panic è molto probabile che a creazione dell'initrd.gz abbia problemi, da DVD ripristinate il tutto. smile.gif

In caso di dubbi o problemi riguardanti la guida, postate pure in quest'area: LINK

Messaggio modificato da mercury il Dec 26 2009, 11:36 AM

"You'll PAY to know what you REALLY think."-J.R. "Bob" Dobbs, 1961
"Any better: congratulations! You've just discovered the secret message. Please, send your answer to "Old Pink", care of the "Funny Farm", Chalfont."
«Won’t you live? Believe me, for now suit yourself»
«Your mother sells welts in hell»
«Che lo "Slack" sia con voi!»
«kill usr1 -1»
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metrofox
Inviato il: Jun 8 2009, 09:09 AM
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Compilazione kernel

liv.gif


Libri e documentazione


http://book.slackware.it/book.html
http://www.slacky.eu
http://www.slackware.com
http://www.slackware.it
http://www.google.it
http://www.google.com/linux (per ricerche only linux)
http://www.google.com/bsd (per ricerche only BSD, ma poche volte vanno anche bene per linux, soprattutto per slackware)
http://www.linuxquestions.org
http://userlocal.com/

"You'll PAY to know what you REALLY think."-J.R. "Bob" Dobbs, 1961
"Any better: congratulations! You've just discovered the secret message. Please, send your answer to "Old Pink", care of the "Funny Farm", Chalfont."
«Won’t you live? Believe me, for now suit yourself»
«Your mother sells welts in hell»
«Che lo "Slack" sia con voi!»
«kill usr1 -1»
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metrofox
Inviato il: Jun 8 2009, 09:12 AM
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Licenza:

QUOTE
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The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    * A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    * B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    * C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    * D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    * E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    * F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    * G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
    * H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    * I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    * J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    * K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    * L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    * M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    * N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    * O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
11. RELICENSING

"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

    Copyright ©  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
    A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
    Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with … Texts." line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

"You'll PAY to know what you REALLY think."-J.R. "Bob" Dobbs, 1961
"Any better: congratulations! You've just discovered the secret message. Please, send your answer to "Old Pink", care of the "Funny Farm", Chalfont."
«Won’t you live? Believe me, for now suit yourself»
«Your mother sells welts in hell»
«Che lo "Slack" sia con voi!»
«kill usr1 -1»
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